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The Number One Article on Content Delivery Network

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content delivery network

Based on the harshness of the matter, you can quit watching, or continue as you’re already invested in the content. With users located throughout the Earth, content doesn’t reach everyone at the identical pace. As dynamic content needs to be requested from the origin server for each and every request, increasing the speed that every request travels can enhance the total performance. As more dynamic content is made, optimization is crucial to boost performance and the user experience. Furthermore, the original content of sites is often plagiarized by other people, including important data and the site style, causing a wonderful loss to creators. After reviewing the info presented above, choosing whether to go with an ADN or a CDN shouldn’t be a challenging choice.

Content Delivery Network at a Glance

Networks give you accessibility to people with whom you may confer and strategize. Employing a content delivery network will boost site loading speeds for website visitors from all around the world without the demand for any extra business program. Content delivery networks or CDN is among the technical advancements going on in the sector of networking.

Design your network in order to adjust whenever there are spikes in gaming usage. NOIA network works as another layer to the current solution. So whenever your network receives a new member, additionally, it receives that member’s network and everybody who belongs to it. A superb content delivery network can deal with a number of the communication necessary for setting up SSL-encrypted connections, a benefit that is growing more important with the growth in security difficulties.

Your Network Identify your current network. Considering it’s a fully distributed network, it has a great number of nodes distributed throughout the world. Other people build a worldwide network and have a little number of geographical PoPs. A content delivery network can accelerate the transmission of large files, cutting back the opportunity to select and recover the content from where you are. Utilizing a Content Delivery Network (CDN) may have a tremendous effect on your site and the service it gives.

When choosing a CDN company, it’s important to pick a service which delivers the necessary level of performance, and that supports your required media type. A cloud service like YouTube is not really a single site. Internet providers will also benefit. Some services are getting to be so popular that their servers cannot withstand incoming requests. On the flip side, CDN service is more reliable and robust, and hence it can function as a trustworthy backup once the stream isn’t available from peer nodes. In other words, CDN services make sure browsers can efficiently download your internet page and all the services that you offer. Amazon’s CDN service is known as CloudFront.

Content delivery is essential to marketing success. Anonymous content delivery utilizing proxy re-encryption is just one of Ester Network’s feature. Distributed networks open amazing new possibilities as soon as it comes to content shipping, but we have to be mindful that it still does not fix all the difficulties. Peer-to-peer livestream delivery works best when many men and women tune in for the exact stream at the exact time. In truth, it’s the fastest log delivery in the business. As a consequence the cost of content delivery is kept relatively significant. As the amount of content delivery gets lower, companies including Netflix, Hulu or HBO have more cash on their hands.

Warning Signs on Seo Techniques You Need to Know About

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The very first technique is to enhance engagement. If you utilize the appropriate search engine optimisation techniques, you can generate traffic to your website easily. As stated earlier that basic search engine marketing techniques which we used to before aren’t working anymore. When it regards off-page search engine optimization methods, networking can help save you.

The aforementioned techniques are sure to help you sail though 2018. It is also feasible you’ve been doing a search engine marketing technique from an unreliable source that’s doing more bad than good for your site. Therefore, it’s regarded as one of the greatest techniques for voice search SEO. Though it might look easy, so as to implement the correct search engine optimization techniques, you want to have a really good sound comprehension and an in-depth understanding of what is new or on the horizon for ranking things.

Which is the reason you should first analyze the search engine optimization strategy that you are using. Search engine marketing strategies make it simpler to do the things flawlessly and eliminate the chance of errors too. If you’re still using the old search engine marketing strategies, your site might be undiscoverable or it can be found, but by the incorrect men and women. You cannot count on old age SEO strategies to find the finest in the current scenario.

Do not ever underestimate user experience factor in regards to SEO. Generally, it is going to help you discover the new methods of SEO to stay 1 step ahead of your competition. Search engine optimisation is the sole way to receive free traffic from the various search engines. Search engine marketing is the 1 technique which can be used for boosting your rank for getting your site on the very first page of the search outcomes. Don’t use too many keywords as it might make your SEO unfruitful since the content will get unreadable. Search engine optimization is still as essential as it was then and it’s always likely to be, so long as the search engines exist. Off-page SEO is among their principal tools to stay informed about the changing digital landscape.

The Ugly Secret of Seo Techniques

Search Engine Optimisation (search engine optimization) is critical to raise your site traffic. Search engine optimisation is about experiments. SEO we all know is a key element in driving traffic to a specific website. Off-page SEO means that you’re using different tactics to boost visitors to your internet page.

Search Engine Optimization, better referred to as SEO, is an essential part of internet marketing. Therefore, if you’re planning to utilize SEO for promoting your goods or services online, you need to have a thorough understanding of on-page SEO so you are able to implement it wisely. A lot of people think off-page SEO is a practice of producing the backlinks only but it isn’t only about the hyperlink building.

Top Choices of Seo Techniques

Understanding SEO is important to come up with effective search engine optimisation techniques that increases your search traffic and subsequently expand your organization. The SEO is part of the marketing that make sure your website is visible to each individual. To explain briefly, SEO is an internet marketing technique that aids your small business website to rank higher in popular search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Bing etc.. On-page SEO is the means of optimizing every internet page of your site in order for it to rank better in the Search Engine Results Pages.

The Website Audit Game

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An audit shouldn’t be stopped with a list of what’s effective and what is not. So, it ultimately gives the site administrators an opportunity to inspect the site for its robustness and its technical framework. When done correctly, a search engine marketing audit will allow you to know what’s working on your existing website. Making SEO web site audit part of the company road map ought to be among the most important undertakings for a corporation.

The Good, the Bad and Website Audit

An audit may be the best method to dramatically better your site’s rankings while not having to alter the fundamental design for the website. Before jumping in and making changes to any component of your site, a site audit is essential. A free site audit could possibly be exactly what you demand.

A site audit is the equivalent of a complete physical for maintaining optimal wellbeing or an extensive inspection of your vehicle to ensure it’s running in its finest. It can be one of the most powerful, and positive things a brand does when attempting to improve their presence online. Doing a web site audit isn’t simple, especially when you’re not tech-savvy. For example, your site audit might incorporate a journey into search engine visibility, a consideration into how simple it’s to navigate through your site, and what your advertising mix resembles.

The audit shouldn’t be restricted to the site alone. Website audit will likewise be able to check on the range of visitors that the website has achieved for a specific timeframe alongside its rankings in the various search engines. A site audit also enlightens the site proprietors to re-assess the efficacy of the site in light of its capacity to generate leads and conversions. Thus, you’re ready to commence a proper search engine marketing website audit.

The Appeal of Website Audit

Website Audit is about in-depth study of the site. It is applicable for online businesses and improves different aspects of the websites. As soon as you get your entire site audit, you may then make the modifications though you get started working on a web site promotion strategy.

Besides the bad free advice from forums which could damage a website there’s the very good free tips that can also damage a website. If your site isn’t performing as well as you’d like, it could be time to do a site audit. A web site is quite a cost effective way of advertising. So that your site would be worked on by a specialist. Flat websites vs. deep websites The two most frequent site navigation structures are flat websites and deep websites.

When you audit your website you’re essentially searching for elements which are working, together with elements that aren’t working and will need to get updated. At times, websites have certain parts that are too hard to understand for ordinary web browsers. Thus, they must be compatible with different mobiles. As your website is a significant tool for helping you to grow your company. Needless to say, what it costs will be based on the website so that it’s tricky to put a genuine figure on it. There are times that you don’t even visit our own site very often so you may not know that something isn’t working.

If you don’t have a site, your possible clients might feel that you’re a fly-by-night operation. Websites are like leasing a vehicle. Overall, you will discover that learning how to earn a site isn’t as difficult as you could think. Carrying out a technical audit of a site is among the absolute most important things you will need to do in order to enhance a websites overall growth.

How to Choose Search Engine Marketing

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There are two sorts of paid search. Paid search may also be referred to as Search marketing, pay-per-click or cost-per-click advertising. There are some different things you can do in order to rank better in 2018 for local search. First and foremost issue is the mobile search because the individuals always want all the micro info in their mobile so we have to customise our website for the mobile devices.

The search engines utilize an auction system, where website owners may bid on keywords that may be applied as search terms by users of the search engines when they’re trying to find information, goods, or solutions. They are tremendously popular and are the most widely used tool on the Internet. As the search engines and societal networks keep growing into even more critical regions of the whole internet, online marketing will grow more crucial, and if you’re able to master that, specifically with techniques including SEO you will be well positioned to garner the rewards.

If it doesn’t satisfy, they will quickly move to a different search engine. The search engines have begun to provide far more interest to the Social Media space. From a quality standpoint, it is not very difficult to please. To put it differently, it is one of the few places on the Internet where a company can connect with a user at the point of interest. A decentralized blockchain-based search engine provides the chance to distribute the necessary resources.

Getting the Best Search Engine Marketing

Forum marketing includes leaving your signature file after every post which leaves a hyperlink to your site and each time you make a post that’s a backlink to your website right there. Most digital techniques of marketing have a little likelihood of succeeding. Article marketing can work in the same manner because when you write articles on a specific topic you build trust in your readers that you’re knowledgeable in regards to the topic accessible. Without regard to the industry you’re in, marketing is critical in earning your company work and prosper. Therefore, email marketing works best when it’s personalized. Finally, it is also meant to remind people about a business. SEM or Search Engine Marketing is a fundamental part of online marketing.

Twenty or thirty decades past, there was not any such thing as online advertising. It is different from traditional marketing because you have the potential to reach people globally. Digital promotion is one of the medium that provides multiple SMM services, that helps in developing an in depth campaign delivering desired benefits. Viral marketing includes growing your customer base by encouraging your clients to refer other clients. There are two kinds of search engine marketing, paid inclusion or you could optimize your site for organic search inclusion and become indexed at no cost. With search engine marketing, it is totally different. It’s indeed imperative that you use search engine marketing in order to advertise your site and just then you are going to have superior chance.

How Legalizing Marijuana Is Securing the Border: The Border Wall, Drug Smuggling, and Lessons for Immigration Policy

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December 19, 2018

President Trump has repeatedly cited drug smuggling to justify a border wall. Because it is difficult to conceal, marijuana is the main drug transported between ports of entry where a border wall would matter. However, Border Patrol seizure figures demonstrate that marijuana flows have fallen continuously since 2014, when states began to legalize marijuana. After decades of no progress in reducing marijuana smuggling, the average Border Patrol agent between ports of entry confiscated 78 percent less marijuana in fiscal year (FY) 2018 than in FY 2013.

As a result, the value of all drugs seized by the average agent has fallen by 70 percent since FY 2013. Without marijuana coming in between ports of entry, drug smuggling activity now primarily occurs at ports of entry, where a border wall would have no effect. In FY 2018, the average inspector at ports of entry made drug seizures that were three times more valuable overall than those made by Border Patrol agents between ports of entry — a radical change from 2013 when Border Patrol agents averaged more valuable seizures. This is because smugglers bring mainly hard drugs through ports. By weight, the average port inspector seized 8 times more cocaine, 17 times more fentanyl, 23 times more methamphetamine, and 36 times more heroin than the average Border Patrol agent seized at the physical border in early 2018.

Given these trends, a border wall or more Border Patrol agents to stop drugs between ports of entry makes little sense. State marijuana legalization starting in 2014 did more to reduce marijuana smuggling than the doubling of Border Patrol agents or the construction of hundreds of miles of border fencing did from 2003 to 2009. As more states — particularly on the East Coast — legalize marijuana in 2019, these trends will only accelerate. The administration should avoid endangering this success and not prosecute state-legal sellers of marijuana. This success also provides a model for addressing illegal immigration. Just as legalization has reduced the incentives to smuggle marijuana illegally, greater legal migration opportunities undercut the incentive to enter illegally. Congress should recognize marijuana legalization’s success and replicate it for immigration.

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Cross-border drug smuggling is a primary justification for President Trump’s calls to hire 5,000 additional Border Patrol agents and build a massive border wall. However, the evidence indicates that legalization of marijuana has more effectively controlled the illegal trafficking of marijuana than interdiction and enforcement alone. From 2003 to 2009, Border Patrol doubled its agents, constructed more than 600 miles of fencing, and introduced new surveillance technologies. Despite this, the annual rate of marijuana seizures between ports of entry by Border Patrol remained unchanged at about its average of 115 pounds per agent through FY 2013.

Following the full legalization of marijuana sales in six states beginning with Colorado and Washington in FY 2014, the rate of seizures by Border Patrol declined 78 percent, from 114 pounds per agent in FY 2013 to 25 pounds per agent in FY 2018. Total marijuana seizures by all Department of Homeland Security (DHS) agencies declined by nearly 2 million pounds from FY 2013 to FY 2017. Other drugs have not entirely substituted for this decline in marijuana. The street value of all drugs seized by the average agent between ports of entry also fell by 70 percent from FY 2013 to FY 2018.

Today, a border wall would have little effect on the most valuable drug smuggling. In FY 2018, the average inspector at ports of entry made drug seizures valued at about $71,000, while the average Border Patrol agent made seizures valued at just $23,000. Moreover, if the goal is to target “hard” drugs, spending resources between ports of entry would also be less effective than at ports of entry. Excluding interior checkpoints, Border Patrol agents between ports of entry accounted for just 8 percent of hard drug seizures by value in 2018.

Marijuana legalization provides a model for dealing with illegal border crossers. Legalizing immigration of lesser-skilled workers has similarly helped control human smuggling and illegal migration more effectively than immigration enforcement alone. During the last 60 years, a 10 percent increase in the number of guest worker admissions was associated with an almost 9 percent decrease in apprehensions per agent. From 1986 to 2017, the number of guest worker admissions increased twentyfold, while the number of apprehensions per agent declined 97 percent.

These findings call into question the efficacy and necessity of constructing physical barriers and surging additional border agents to control the flow of drugs and people between ports of entry. Instead, they indicate that a better approach to managing human and drug smuggling would be to hire more officers at ports of entry, increase legal channels for migration, and legalize marijuana nationwide. These alternative strategies have proved more effective than enforcement alone.

Marijuana Legalization

The federal government currently prohibits the production, sale, and possession of marijuana (cannabis) by classifying it as a Schedule I drug, defined as “drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse.”1 Despite federal prohibition of marijuana, the United States has one of the highest use rates in the world, with nearly half of Americans reporting that they have consumed it at some point in their lives.2 Almost 36 million Americans used marijuana in 2016, and the total marijuana market is valued at roughly $56.1 billion.3

For decades, state laws complemented federal marijuana prohibition with separate state penalties. Starting in 2014, however, six states have allowed fully legalized recreational marijuana sales for adults for the first time since prohibition began in the 1930s (Figure 1).4Washington and Colorado first opened legal dispensaries in 2014. Oregon followed in July 2015, Alaska in October 2016, Nevada in July 2017, and California in January 2018. Maine and Massachusetts have also voted to legalize commercial marijuana sales, though delays in implementing regulations and issuing licenses will prevent any sales in those states until 2019. In 2018, Michigan voted to legalize recreational marijuana, with the first legal sales expected in 2020.5

Figure 1: States with legal marijuana sales

Source: National Council of State Legislatures, “Marijuana Overview,” November 13, 2018.

As of September 2018, one in six Americans lived in states with legal marijuana, and one in four lived either in or next to states with legal marijuana sales.6 After legal sales open in Michigan, Massachusetts, and Maine, nearly one in four will live in states with legal sales, and almost two in three will either live in or next to those states.

While state-level legalizations do not prevent federal enforcement, the Obama administration adopted a practice — though not an official policy — of noninterference with state-legal marijuana sales.7 The Trump administration has largely followed the prior practice, but former attorney general Jeff Sessions did rescind an Obama-era memorandum requiring federal district attorneys to consider state legality when determining which cases to pursue.8 District attorneys in Colorado and California quickly issued statements stating that the rescission would not affect their prosecutorial practices.9 While President Trump has publicly stated his opposition to cracking down on legal marijuana, former White House press secretary Sean Spicer told reporters to expect “greater enforcement” of marijuana laws, and the White House Marijuana Policy Coordination Committee has launched a public relations campaign to undermine state legalization efforts.10

Before the wave of state-level marijuana legalizations, the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime estimated that drug smugglers imported two-thirds of all marijuana consumed in the United States.11 A 2010 study estimated that Mexican marijuana alone accounted for 40 to 67 percent of all U.S. consumption.12 In 2013, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) found that marijuana smuggling “has occurred at consistently high levels over the past 10 years, primarily across the US-Mexico border.”13

Legalized markets directly affect the illegal markets for marijuana. Not only is it easier to obtain domestically produced cannabis today, legal marijuana is also more uniform and of much higher quality than the illegal Mexican product.14 One study for the Colorado Department of Revenue found that a “comparison of inventory tracking data and consumption estimates signals that Colorado’s preexisting illicit marijuana market for residents and visitors has been fully absorbed into the regulated market.”15 Marijuana legally grown in states where it is legalized often supplies consumers in states where marijuana is still outlawed. In 2014, 44 percent of marijuana sales in Denver were to residents of other states.16 The Colorado study found that “legal in-state purchases that are consumed out of state” are likely occurring.17 This places further downward pressure on prices and has prompted lawsuits by prohibitionist states against Colorado.18

A prelegalization study estimated that after legalization, it would likely be more expensive to smuggle marijuana from Mexico to every state in the continental United States except Texas than to have it sent from Colorado and Washington.19 This competition appears to be affecting Mexican marijuana prices. Mexican growers have reported that marijuana prices in Mexico have recently fallen between 50 and 70 percent after U.S. legalizations.20According to the DEA, overall domestic American production has grown because of the new state-approved marijuana markets.21 Customs and Border Protection (CBP) itself has hypothesized that one explanation for the decline could be that “legalization in the United States [h]as reduced demand” for Mexican marijuana.22 The fact that some cartels have taken to using drug tunnels to smuggle migrants — who are less profitable and more readily identifiable — is further evidence of the effects of legalization.23

Efforts to Combat Drug Smuggling

Drug interdiction has a long history in the United States, dating back to alcohol prohibition. During the 1920s, the interdiction of bootleggers served as a principal justification for the creation of the Border Patrol. Labeling them “unscrupulous” and their traffic “nefarious,” government reports repeatedly called on Congress for more agents, money, and aircraft to interdict alcohol.24 From 1926 to 1934, agents intercepted nearly 2 million quarts of liquor.25 Nonetheless, only the end of Prohibition brought about the collapse of the bootleg trade, which dropped 90 percent from 1930 to 1934 and finally disappeared entirely in 1935.

After alcohol prohibition, smuggling of other prohibited drugs has taken over as justification for increasing Border Patrol spending. Since 1951, the Border Patrol’s annual reports have highlighted its contributions to the “drive against narcotics,” particularly its seizures of Mexican marijuana.26 While Mexico has also prohibited the cultivation of the plant since the 1920s, the relative lack of enforcement, the good growing climate, and the differences in economic development between that country and the United States have led Mexico to become the main supplier for its northern neighbor.27 But in 1937, Congress effectively banned the sale of marijuana.28

Today, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has the primary responsibility for interdicting drug traffickers entering the United States. DHS divides its efforts between four agencies: the Coast Guard, which patrols the coasts of the United States; the Office of Field Operations (OFO), which inspects travelers entering legally through ports of entry; Border Patrol, which surveils the northern and southern borders; and Air and Marine Operations (AMO), which supports Border Patrol’s efforts between ports of entry with aircraft and marine vessels. OFO, Border Patrol, and AMO are all divisions of Customs and Border Protection (CBP). Together, these four agencies dedicate $4.2 billion annually specifically to drug interdiction.29

Since 1965, Congress has invested $64 billion to secure the border from illegal immigration as well as drug smuggling.30 Some 82 percent of the spending has occurred in the last two decades alone. Border Patrol has a force of nearly 20,000 agents, a fivefold increase over the level in 1992.31 AMO has an expansive fleet of 286 vessels, 246 aircraft, and 9 unmanned aerial drones designed to spot and interdict traffickers.32 Since 2000, Border Patrol has constructed nearly 600 miles of border fencing and barriers.33

In addition, CBP has nearly 1,500 canine teams used to detect drugs.34 The agency has deployed an extensive system of surveillance equipment between ports of entry, including drones and towers, and adopted new scanners and other technology at ports of entry.35Despite these purchases, the DHS inspector general concluded in 2016 that the department “could not ensure its drug interdiction efforts met required national drug control outcomes nor accurately assess the impact of the approximately $4.2 billion it spends annually on drug control activities.”36 Similarly, none of its spending had any noticeable effect on the amount of drug smuggling prior to the legalization of marijuana in several states in 2014.

The White House has proposed several additional measures to deter drug smuggling along the border. These measures include a southwestern border wall with Mexico, which carries an estimated price tag of at least $22 billion to construct.37 In addition, the administration has requested that Congress fund the hiring of an additional 5,000 Border Patrol agents to patrol the southwest border.38 President Trump and the White House have repeatedly connected these efforts to build a border wall with drug smuggling, in particular, the smuggling of opioids like fentanyl and heroin.39

Measuring Drug Flows

Because illicit marijuana moves in the black market, no consistent and reliable data exist on the quantities that smugglers bring into the United States each year. The best available proxy for estimating changes in the flow is the amount that the government seizes at the border. This measure does not provide a reliable predictor of the absolute amount being smuggled, but it can capture trends in the flow. Although the total amount that makes it into the country is likely many times greater than the amount that the government seizes, a relationship will exist between seizures and inflows that allows an approximation of the trends up or down in total flows. In the absence of any other changes that significantly improve or hamper the effectiveness of smuggling or enforcement, more drug smuggling will generally result in greater seizures.

The main possibility that could make seizures a poor proxy for relative flows between years is if the effectiveness of enforcement or smuggling is wildly inconsistent, resulting in a wide variance in the amounts of drugs that agents discover. For example, if most drugs seized at the border came from only a few seizures, or most drugs smuggled came from only a few attempts, the amounts could fluctuate so widely that they would be worthless in assessing changes in the level of smuggling over time.

But because the marijuana seized crossing the border is spread out over many seizures — more than 12,000 annually — chance is less of a factor in these overall trends.40 Moreover, as seen in Figure 2 in the following section, the amount each agent seized was quite consistent before 2014 at an average of 115 pounds per year. Prior to legalization, the average year-over-year change from 2003 to 2013 was almost zero, compared to 25 percent declines from 2014 to 2018 — greater than one standard deviation downward from the prelegalization trend each year.41 Other data stretching back to the early 1990s support the conclusion that each agent has consistently seized a similar amount.42 Variation in the effectiveness of enforcement or smuggling cannot explain the sudden and persistent decline in seizures over the last five years.

Another issue is that increased enforcement would likely lead to more seizures. It is possible, however, to control for the level of enforcement by focusing on the quantity seized per agent, rather than the aggregate amount for the entire agency (Figure 2). One difficulty with the per-agent measurement is that the effectiveness of agents could decrease with each new hire, so the result could measure just the declining utility of the marginal hire rather than a real decline in smuggling. When the agency doubled its labor force from 2003 to 2011, however, the rate of seizures per agent remained flat, while the agency slightly reduced the number of agents during the period of declining seizures from 2014 to 2018. These facts suggest that the decline in seizures per agent is not an effect of diminishing returns from increasing the size of the force.43

In the immigration context, researchers often use the number of apprehensions of border crossers per agent to estimate year-to-year trends in total inflows of illegal crossers of the southwest border.44 The validity of this measure has recently received support from a 2017 DHS report that used survey data to estimate the number of total successful crossings for the 17-year period from 2000 to 2016.45 Comparing these estimates to the per-agent apprehension figures during this time indicates that 86 percent of the variance in successful entries can be predicted by the number of apprehensions per agent, making apprehensions a very strong predictor of the year-to-year trends in successful illegal crossings. Given the similarities between illegal entry of people and the illegal entry of drugs, the same is likely true for drug seizures and smuggling.

Seizures also fail to capture policy changes that could direct agents to prioritize or deprioritize marijuana smuggling, though it is not clear how Border Patrol could, as a technical matter, target a specific illicit drug without also seizing other drugs in the process. In any case, formal policy on marijuana smuggling has not changed during the relevant period, and there has been no apparent change in informal policy priorities. Moreover, the decline in marijuana seizures has occurred across multiple agencies and administrations. These factors make informal policy priorities an unlikely explanation for the trends.

Less Marijuana Smuggling

State-level marijuana legalization has undercut demand for illegal Mexican marijuana, which in turn has decreased the amount of drug smuggling into the United States across the southwest border. Because it is so much more difficult to conceal than other drugs, marijuana prior to legalization was, according to the DEA, “predominately smuggled between, instead of through, the ports of entry.”46 For this reason, the most important agency for marijuana interdiction is the Border Patrol, which patrols the areas between ports of entry.

Figure 2 reports the number of pounds of marijuana seized annually per Border Patrol agent and compares these figures to the total length of the border fences in a year. From FY 2003 to FY 2009, Border Patrol doubled its workforce and constructed hundreds of miles of fences, yet this increased enforcement did not reduce marijuana smuggling.47 Each agent annually seized virtually the same quantity of marijuana through 2013, indicating roughly the same overall inflow of the illegal substance.48 From 2013 to 2018, however, the amount of marijuana each Border Patrol agent seized declined by 78 percent.

Figure 2: Marijuana seizures and length of border fences, FY 2013 to FY 2018

*Projected based on the first eleven months of the fiscal year.

Sources: U.S. Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General, “Independent Review of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s Reporting of Drug Control Performance Summary Reports,” 2008, 2011; Customs and Border Protection, “Sector Profiles,” 2012-2017; Customs and Border Protection, “Enforcement Statistics FY 2018,” August 31, 2018; Carla Argueta, “Border Security,” Congressional Research Service, April 19, 2016.

Even within FY 2018, the first three months of the fiscal year — before California legalized sales in January — were 29 percent above the next eight months.49 Marijuana smuggling has also not shifted toward entering through ports of entry. The total quantity of marijuana seized by the OFO, the agency that handles admissions at ports of entry, has dropped by 34 percent from 2013 to 2018 (Table 1).50 Seizures have decreased over water and airborne smuggling routes. While numbers for FY 2018 are not available yet, Air and Marine Operations interdicted 42 percent fewer pounds of marijuana in 2017 than in 2013.51Likewise, the Coast Guard has seen a 65 percent decline in marijuana seizures during that period.52 Overall, all DHS agencies seized 56 percent less marijuana in 2017 than 2013.

Table 1: Department of Homeland Security marijuana seizures (in pounds), FY 2013 to FY 2018

*Approximation based on figures for all drug seizures.
**Projected based on the first 11 months of the fiscal year.

Sources: U.S. Department of State, “Narcotics Control Reports,” 2014-2018; Customs and Border Protection, “Enforcement Statistics FY 2018,” August 31, 2018; Air and Marine Operations, Reports and Testimony, 2013; 2014; 2015; 2016; 2017.

Full legalization of marijuana in several states dramatically increased the amount of marijuana sales that occur legally in the United States. A relatively small amount of legal marijuana sales had occurred prior to 2014 under the auspices of legal medicinal use, and in 2013 and 2014, four states — Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Illinois, and Maryland — legalized medical marijuana. But these states account for just 4 percent of medical marijuana users nationwide, so it is unlikely that they changed the trends substantially.53Full legalization increased the amount of legal sales from about $1.5 billion to $9.7 billion from 2013 to 2017.54 This increase coincided with a 66 percent drop in the street value of all DHS marijuana seizures — a decline from $2.3 billion in 2013 to $765 million in 2017 (Figure 3).55

Figure 3: Legal marijuana sales and street value of all DHS marijuana seizures, FY 2013 to FY 2017

Sources: Arcview Market Research, “The State of Legal Marijuana Markets,” 1st-6th editions; author’s calculations based on drug valuations and amounts from Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2018; U.S. Department of State, “Narcotics Control Reports”; Customs and Border Protection, “Enforcement Statistics FY 2018,” August 31, 2018; Air and Marine Operations, Reports and Testimony, 2013; 2014; 2015; 2016; 2017.

The street values of a pound of marijuana estimated by CBP also highlight the increased availability of domestic marijuana. From 2012 to 2017, the average street value of a pound of marijuana seized by CBP declined by 40 percent, dropping from $794 per pound in 2012 to just $474 per pound in 2017.56 Legal marijuana is competing with the drug cartels and lowering prices, which undercuts the financial incentive to smuggle across the border.

Other Drug Smuggling

Mexican drug cartels have responded to their declining share of the marijuana market by smuggling other drugs through ports of entry but have failed to make up for the decline in marijuana smuggling. Most drugs other than marijuana are smuggled through ports of entry because traffickers can more easily conceal them. For this reason, Figure 4 presents seizures both between and at ports of entry.57 In FY 2013, marijuana accounted for 98 percent of all border and customs drug seizures — both between and at ports of entry — by weight. By FY 2018, that percentage had declined to 84 percent.58 While non-marijuana drug seizures have increased — indicating that cartels may attempt to compensate by switching drug type — the decline in marijuana seizures has resulted in a 68 percent overall decline in pounds seized per agent of all drugs since FY 2013.

Figure 4: Drug seizures per agent at and between ports of entry, FY 2013 to FY 2018

*Projected based on the first eleven months of the fiscal year.

Source: Customs and Border Protection, “Enforcement Statistics FY 2018,” August 31, 2018; Border Patrol, “Staffing Statistics,” December 12, 2017; Fedscope, “Employment Cubes,” 2013-2018.

Marijuana may still dominate by weight, but other drugs — methamphetamine (meth), heroin, cocaine, and fentanyl — are much more valuable per pound. Estimating the value of drug seizures is difficult because drug prices vary widely throughout the United States and no government agency consistently estimates a national average. Moreover, CBP does not report the purity of the drugs it seizes, making it impossible to use outside estimates to value its seizures. However, while the agency does not report the collective value of all the drugs it seizes, it does regularly issue press releases that value individual seizures based on “the latest DEA statistics.”59 Aggregating this information provides the best estimate of how the agency values drug seizures.60

CBP reports the “street value” of a drug.61 Street prices inflate the absolute values of drug seizures because drugs obtain those values only after crossing the U.S. border and arriving at their destinations.62 However, the relative values between the different drugs and between different years are still useful for the purpose of comparison.63 The tables in the Appendix contain the valuations, seizure amounts, and number of agents and officers at ports of entry and between ports of entry.

Figure 5 presents the street value of drug seizures made by both Border Patrol agents between ports of entry and by CBP officers at ports of entry, again showing the average amount seized per agent. By value, marijuana has fallen from about 57 percent of seizures to just 18 percent from FY 2013 to FY 2018. The absolute value of marijuana seizures at and between ports of entry has declined 79 percent from $1.8 billion in FY 2013 to be on pace for just $380 million in FY 2018. Overall, the total value of all drug seizures per agent (or officer) has declined by 34 percent from FY 2013 to FY 2018. Marijuana legalization appears to have cut overall drug smuggling.

Figure 5: Value of drug seizures per agent at and between ports of entry by drug type,
FY 2013 to FY 2018*

*Projected based on the first 11 months of the fiscal year.

Source: Author’s calculations based on drug valuations and amounts from Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2018; Customs and Border Protection, “Enforcement Statistics FY 2018,” August 31, 2018; Border Patrol, “Staffing Statistics,” December 12, 2017; Fedscope, “Employment Cubes,” 2013-2018.

All the decline in the value of drug seizures occurred between ports of entry. The value of all drug seizures between ports of entry fell by 70 percent on a per-agent basis from FY 2013 to FY 2018, while those at ports of entry increased by just 3 percent (Figure 6). In 2018, the drugs seized by OFO officers at ports of entry were three times more valuable than those seized by Border Patrol between ports of entry, while Border Patrol agents seized more valuable drugs in 2013. In 2018, the average inspector at a port of entry seized drugs valued at almost $71,000 compared to about $23,000 for Border Patrol agents between ports of entry. This fact significantly undermines the argument for more Border Patrol agents or a wall to interdict drug smuggling between ports of entry.

Figure 6: Value of drug seizures per agent by location of seizure, FY 2013 to 2018*

*Projected based on the first 11 months of the fiscal year.

Source: Author’s calculations based on drug valuations and amounts from Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2018; Customs and Border Protection, “Enforcement Statistics FY 2018,” August 31, 2018; Border Patrol, “Staffing Statistics,” December 12, 2017; Fedscope, “Employment Cubes,” 2013-2018.

Given the focus of the political debate, it is important to note that drugs other than marijuana are almost entirely seized at ports of entry (Table 2). By value, CBP seized 87 percent of all hard drugs at ports of entry, not between ports of entry, in 2018. Stated another way, the hard drugs seized at ports of entry were seven times more valuable than those seized between ports of entry.

Table 2: Value of non-marijuana drug seizures by location of seizure (in millions of U.S. dollars)

*Projected based on the first 11 months of the fiscal year.

Source: Author’s calculations based on drug valuations and amounts from Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2018; Customs and Border Protection, “Enforcement Statistics FY 2018,” August 31, 2018.

This fact becomes even more pronounced when considering that about half of all Border Patrol seizures of hard drugs in 2018 came at checkpoints in the interior of the United States.64 Drugs seized at checkpoints are already moving within the United States, primarily on major highways, where a border wall could do nothing. About two-thirds of Border Patrol seizures of heroin and meth and one-third of its seizures of fentanyl and cocaine came at checkpoints from April to August 2018 — the only months that the agency has published data on checkpoint seizures. Separating out these seizures reveals that hard drugs seized at ports of entry were 11 times more valuable than those seized between ports of entry or those seized at interior checkpoints from April to August 2018 — just 7 percent of the value of the non-marijuana seizures by OFO and Border Patrol occurred between ports of entry (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Percentage of total value of non-marijuana drug seizures by location, April to August 2018

Source: Author’s calculations based on drug valuations and amounts from Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2018; Customs and Border Protection, “Enforcement Statistics FY 2018,” August 31, 2018; Customs and Border Protection, “U.S. Border Patrol Nationwide Checkpoint Drug Seizures in Pounds,” October 12, 2018.

During this time, each OFO officer seized at ports of entry slightly more pounds of marijuana, while confiscating 8 times more pounds of cocaine, 17 times more of fentanyl, 23 times more of methamphetamine, and 36 times more of heroin than each Border Patrol agent seized at the physical border — that is, at noncheckpoint locations between ports of entry (Table 3).65 In light of these facts, a surge of agents, technology, and infrastructure between ports of entry does not make sense as a strategy to control the flow of hard drugs into the United States.66

Table 3: Drug seizures by location of seizure (pounds per agent), April to August 2018

Source: Author’s calculations based on Customs and Border Protection, “Enforcement Statistics FY 2018,” August 31, 2018; Customs and Border Protection, “U.S. Border Patrol Nationwide Checkpoint Drug Seizures in Pounds,” October 12, 2018; Border Patrol, “Staffing Statistics,” December 12, 2017; Fedscope, “Employment Cubes,” 2013-2018.

Lessons for Immigration Policy

Since the imposition of strict numerical limits on legal immigration in the 1920s, federal efforts to prevent illegal immigration have been largely unsuccessful in limiting the illegal entry and residence of large numbers of immigrants, except when combined with large increases in lawful migration or a collapse in American demand for foreign workers, such as during the Great Depression. Today, Congress spends more money on the agencies responsible for federal enforcement of immigration laws than on all other federal law enforcement agencies combined — about $187 billion from 1986 to 2013.67 Since 2003, the federal government has deported about 1.7 million immigrants from the interior of the country and apprehended another 10 million at the borders.68

Just as legalization of marijuana has helped secure the border against illicit entry of marijuana, making it easier for immigrant workers to live and work legally in the United States has reduced the incentive of would-be illegal immigrants to cross the border. Over the last 70 years, the number of work visas is negatively correlated with illegal entries along the border.69 In other words, more work visas mean fewer illegal entries. The best available indicator of illegal entries is the number of apprehended border crossers. All else being equal, the more people who attempt to cross, the more people who are apprehended. Of course, increases in the number of agents could result in more apprehensions — just as more agents lead to more drug seizures — but as in the drug context, it is possible to control for the effect of increased enforcement by focusing on the number of apprehensions that the average agent makes.

Figure 8 presents the number of entries by lesser-skilled guest workers from 1949 to 2018 compared to the number of apprehensions per Border Patrol agent.70 The number of apprehensions spiked in the 1950s, but Congress responded by ramping up the number of admissions under the Bracero guest worker program, and illegal immigration almost disappeared. Unfortunately, Congress terminated the program in 1965, and the number of apprehensions per agent rose to a high of 528 in 1986. Starting in the mid-1990s, more guest workers began to enter under the H-2A and H-2B temporary worker programs, shooting up dramatically in the mid-2000s, while the number of apprehensions per agent collapsed.

Figure 8: Lesser-skilled guest worker admissions and apprehensions per Border Patrol agent*

*”Lesser-skilled” refers to Bracero admissions and H-2A and H-2B admissions; 2018 admissions estimated based on 2017.

Sources: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, “General Collection,” 1949-1995; U.S. Department of Homeland Security, “Yearbook of Immigration Statistics,” 1996-2017; Immigration and Naturalization Service, “History: Border Patrol,” 1985; TRAC Immigration, “Border Patrol Agents,” 2006; Border Patrol, “Staffing Statistics,” December 12, 2017.

Since 1949, apprehensions per Border Patrol agent were two-thirds lower in years with greater than 200,000 lesser-skilled guest worker admissions when compared with years with less than 200,000 admissions. During the same period, a 10 percent increase in guest workers was associated with an 8.8 percent decrease in apprehensions per agent. In recent years, the number of guest worker admissions increased twentyfold, from 26,014 in 1986 to 536,634 in 2017, while the average agent in 2017 apprehended 97 percent fewer people than in 1986.

Congress is already reducing illegal immigration by issuing more temporary work visas, thus reducing the incentive to cross illegally. Nonetheless, roughly 190,000 people still made it across the border illegally in 2015.71 Congress could address this flow by repealing visa regulations that limit lesser-skilled workers to seasonal jobs and exclude them from year-round or permanent positions. In addition, the government issues only 5,000 permanent residency visas for employment in lesser-skilled occupations. Lifting this quota and creating a work visa for year-round positions would help secure the border.

Today, in addition to people entering mainly for the purpose of employment, the Border Patrol also stops many asylum seekers who have left their home countries, primarily in Central America, as a result of political instability and the world’s highest rates of homicide.72 Among these, there are also large numbers of individuals apprehended by Border Patrol who are trying to reunite with their families in the United States.73 While marijuana flows lack these noneconomic drivers, wage differences are still the best predictor of where asylum seekers ultimately end up.74 This helps explain the consistency in the pattern of low levels of apprehensions during periods of high work-visa issuances.

Of course, the United States is already home to more than 11 million illegal immigrants, most of whom entered before the increase in guest worker admissions in the mid-2000s.75These workers have built their lives here, and while most probably would have availed themselves of a more permissive temporary worker program had it existed, a temporary worker program is no longer likely to result in a mass exodus. Rather, the United States should do with illegal immigrants what many states have done with illegal marijuana: legalize them — that is, provide an opportunity for them to obtain permanent residency.

Current law not only offers just 5,000 green cards to lower-skilled workers but also bans anyone who crossed the border illegally from applying for a green card, including family-sponsored ones.76 This prevents many illegal immigrants married to U.S. citizens, who would normally be entitled to permanent residency, from legalizing. Even if they return to their home countries, current law requires them to wait a decade before applying to be reunited with their American spouses — an unrealistic option. The only viable solution is a legalization program that allows them to get right with the law. Paired with more work visas, such a program could dramatically reduce illegal residence and allow for a regulated legal form of entry and residence.

In 1924, when Congress slashed legal immigration by roughly 80 percent, the Border Patrol immediately made the connection between the effects of alcohol prohibition and the effects of the legal immigration restrictions, labeling illegal immigration “bootlegging in aliens.”77In 1926, the commissioner of the Bureau of Immigration wrote to the secretary of labor that “as a consequence of more recent numerical limitation of immigration, the bootlegging of aliens … has grown to be an industry second in importance only to the bootlegging of liquor.”78 In other words, the government immediately recognized itself as the cause of both illegal immigration and alcohol smuggling. Alcohol legalization eliminated one of the trades, but the other has still not subsided. Marijuana legalization provides yet another model for how to address the illicit cross-border flow.


State-level marijuana legalization has significantly undercut marijuana smuggling. Based on Border Patrol seizures, smuggling has fallen 78 percent over just a five-year period. Because marijuana was the primary drug smuggled between ports of entry, where Border Patrol surveils, the value of the agency’s seizures overall — on a per-agent basis — has declined 70 percent. Now, smugglers seek to bring the most valuable drugs into the country through ports of entry rather than smuggling through the deserts of Arizona and New Mexico or across the Rio Grande. The average officer at ports of entry seized drugs valued at three times the amount of the average Border Patrol agent between ports of entry. A border wall or more Border Patrol agents would do nothing to stop most drug trafficking.

Marijuana legalization also provides a model for addressing illegal immigration. The legalization of marijuana eliminated the incentive to smuggle it across the border. In the same way, the legalization of migration and employment by foreign workers in the United States would eliminate the incentive to cross, live, and work illegally. The state-level legalization of marijuana has had a major effect on cross-border smuggling, implying that even modest reforms to legal immigration could have strong effects on illegal border crossers.

Appendix: Drug Seizure Amounts and Values

Table A.1: Office of Field Operations and Border Patrol drug seizures at and between ports of entry

*Valuations for 2018 reflect 2017 average valuations; all 2018 estimates based on first 11 months of the fiscal year.

**Insufficient data, uses 2017 average valuations.

Sources: Amounts — Customs and Border Protection, “CBP Enforcement Statistics FY2018,” August 28, 2018.

Values — Author’s calculation based on aggregating valuations from CBP press releases. Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2017.

Agents — Border Patrol, “Staffing Statistics,” December 12, 2017; Fedscope, “Employment Cubes,” 2013-2018.

Table A.2: Office of Field Operations drug seizures at ports of entry

*Valuations for 2018 reflect 2017 average valuations; all 2018 estimates based on first 11 months of the fiscal year.

**Insufficient data, uses 2017 average valuations.

Sources: Amounts — Customs and Border Protection, “CBP Enforcement Statistics FY2018,” August 28, 2018.

Values — Author’s calculation based on aggregating valuations from CBP press releases. Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2017.

Agents — Fedscope, “Employment Cubes,” 2013-2018.

Table A.3: Border Patrol drug seizures between ports of entry

*Valuations for 2018 reflect 2017 average valuations; all 2018 estimates based on first 11 months of the fiscal year.

Sources: Amounts — Customs and Border Protection, “CBP Enforcement Statistics FY2018,” August 28, 2018.

Values — Author’s calculation based on aggregating valuations from CBP press releases. Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2017.

Agents — Border Patrol, “Staffing Statistics,” December 12, 2017.

Note: In 2017, CBP valued fentanyl seized at about $29,000 per pound, while valuing heroin about $21,000 per pound.79CBP describes its valuations as the “street value” of the drugs “based on the latest DEA statistics.”80 According to valuations from the DEA cited in news reports and elsewhere, smugglers can buy heroin in Colombia for about $2,721 per pure pound and sell it wholesale in the United States for about $36,287, while fentanyl can be bought in China for about $2,267 per pure pound and cut into 7 to 11 pounds — each sold for as much as a pound of heroin ($36,287) for a total value of about $725,749 per pure pound.81 Thus, the value of a pure pound of fentanyl is, according to these reports, about 20 times more valuable than heroin, while CBP’s valuations show that their seized fentanyl is only slightly more valuable than heroin. Only CBP knows the purity of the fentanyl that it seizes, and it would be surprising if CBP undervalues its own fentanyl seizures, but if it does — and the actual value of CBP’s fentanyl seizures is about 20 times more than heroin per pound — the total value of drug seizures at ports of entry since 2013 would have increased 50 percent, rather than 8 percent; the total value of drug seizures between ports of entry would have declined 65 percent, rather than 73 percent; and the total value of all drugs both at and between ports of entry would have declined 11 percent, rather than 35 percent. Overall, in this counterfactual, ports of entry would account for 79 percent of the value of all drug seizures rather than 78 percent. Thus, the general conclusions in this paper — that ports of entry are now the dominant means of entry for drugs and that marijuana legalization reduced the overall value of drug flows — still hold, even if CBP is massively undervaluing its fentanyl seizures.


1 Drug Enforcement Administration, “Drug Scheduling,” https://www.dea.gov/drug-scheduling.

2 Louisa Degenhardt et al., “Toward a Global View of Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis, and Cocaine Use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys,” PLoS Medicine 5, no. 7 (2008): e141, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050141.

3 Statistic on marijuana use from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, “Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables,” September 7, 2017, https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016/NSDUH-DetTabs-2016.pdf. Statistic on value from The Arcview Group, “New Report: Marijuana Stores as Profitable as Starbucks,” November 16, 2017, https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/11/16/1194273/0/en/NEW-REPORTMarijuana-Stores-as-Profitable-as-Starbucks.html.

4 Melia Robinson, “Here’s Where You Can Legally Smoke Weed in 2018,” Business Insider, December 31, 2017.

5 Kathleen Gray, “Legal Marijuana in Michigan: What You Need to Know,” Detroit Free Press, November 7, 2018.

6 National Drug Intelligence Center, “Domestic Cannabis Cultivation Assessment 2009-Primary Foreign Source Countries for Marijuana,” U.S. Department of Justice, July 2009, https://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs37/37035/foreign.htm.

7 Brady Dennis, “Obama Administration Will Not Block State Marijuana Laws If Distribution Is Regulated,” Washington Post, August 29, 2013.

8 Jacob Sullum, “Did Jeff Sessions’s Marijuana Memo Restore the Rule of Law?,” Reason, January 5, 2018.

9 U.S. Department of Justice, “U.S. Attorney Bob Troyer Issues Statement Regarding Marijuana Prosecutions in Colorado,” January 4, 2018, https://www.justice.gov/usao-co/pr/us-attorney-bob-troyer-issues-statement-regarding-marijuana-prosecutions-colorado; and Wendy Fry, “San Diego U.S. Attorney Backs Sessions’s Pot Enforcement Policy,” NBC 7 San Diego, January 4, 2018.

10 Christopher Ingraham, “White House Hints at ‘Greater Enforcement’ of Federal Marijuana Ban in States Where It’s Legal,” Washington Post, February 23, 2017; and Dominic Holden, “Inside the Trump Administration’s Secret War on Weed,” BuzzFeed, August 29, 2018.

11 Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006 World Drug Report, vol. 1 (Vienna: United Nations, 2007), p. 175, https://www.unodc.org/pdf/WDR_2006/wdr2006_volume1.pdf.

12 Beau Kilmer et al., “Reducing Drug Trafficking Revenues and Violence in Mexico,” RAND Corporation, October 12, 2010.

13 DEA, “2013 National Drug Threat Assessment Summary,” U.S. Department of Justice, November 2013, https://www.dea.gov/sites/default/files/2018-07/DIR-017-13%20NDTA%20Summary%20final.pdf.

14 U.S. Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control (March 2014), https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/222881.pdf.

15 Marijuana Policy Group, “Market Size and Demand for Marijuana in Colorado, 2017 Market Update,” University of Colorado, Boulder, Leeds School of Business, August 2018, p. 3, https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/MED%20Demand%20and%20Market%20%20Study%20%20082018.pdf.

16 Tom Wainwright, Narconomics: How to Run a Drug Cartel (New York: PublicAffairs, 2017), p. 221.

17 Marijuana Policy Group, “Market Size and Demand for Marijuana,” p. 3.

18 DEA, “2017 National Drug Threat Assessment,” U.S. Department of Justice, October 2017,https://www.dea.gov/sites/default/files/2018-07/DIR-040-17_2017-NDTA.pdf; Tom McGhee, “Massive Marijuana Bust Dismantles Illegal Trafficking Ring in Denver Metro Area,” Denver Post, June 28, 2017; and John Ingold, “Supreme Court Denies Oklahoma and Nebraska Challenge to Colorado Pot,” Denver Post, March 21, 2016.

19 Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad, “Possible Impact of the Legalization of Marijuana in the United States,” 2012, http://imco.org.mx/seguridad/posible_impacto_de_la_legalizacion_de_la_marihuana_en_estados_unidos/.

20 Andrea Crossan, “Loosened U.S. Pot Laws Have Sent Mexican Weed Prices Plunging,” PRI, January 5, 2016; and John Burnett, “Legal Pot in the U.S. May Be Undercutting Mexican Marijuana,” NPR, December 1, 2014.

21 DEA, “2017 National Drug Threat Assessment.”

22 CBP Office of Intelligence, “Drug Smuggling at the Border,” U.S. Department of Homeland Security, October 18, 2017, http://www.nascsa.org/Conference2017/presentations/pena.pdf.

23 Stephen Dinan, “Tunnels Become Human Smuggling Pathways across Border While Drug Transfers Go Airborne,” Washington Times, August 27, 2017.

24 Bureau of Immigration, “Annual Report of the Commissioner of Immigration to the Secretary of Labor: Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1925,” U.S. Department of Labor, 1925, available at U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, “General Collection,” https://www.uscis.gov/history-and-genealogy/historical-library/our-collection/general-collection.

25 Bureau of Immigration reports available at U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, “General Collection,” https://www.uscis.gov/history-and-genealogy/historical-library/our-collection/general-collection.

26 Immigration and Naturalization Service, “Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1951,” U.S. Department of Justice, 1951, available at U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, “General Collection,” https://www.uscis.gov/history-and-genealogy/historical-library/our-collection/general-collection.

27 Isaac Campos, Home Grown (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012), p. 82.

28 Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, Pub.L. 75-238, 50 Stat. 551.

29 Office of Inspector General, “DHS Drug Interdiction Efforts Need Improvement,” U.S. Department of Homeland Security, OIG-17-09, November 8, 2016, https://www.oig.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/2017/OIG-17-09-Nov16.pdf.

30 David Bier, “GOP Bill Spends More on Border Patrol in 5 Years Than It Has Spent in 5 Decades,” Cato at Liberty (blog), January 24, 2018, https://www.cato.org/blog/gop-bill-spends-more-border-patrol-5-years-it-has-spent-5-decades.

31 Border Patrol, “Border Patrol Agent Nationwide Staffing by Fiscal Year,” 2017, https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/assets/documents/2017-Dec/BP%20Staffing%20FY1992-FY2017.pdf.

32 Air and Marine Operations, “Vision 2025,” Customs and Border Protection, November 16, 2016, https://www.cbp.gov/document/publications/air-and-marine-operations-vision-2025.

33 U.S. Department of Homeland Security, “Border Security in the 21st Century,” July 13, 2015, https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/14_1009_s1_border_slide_508.pdf.

34 2017 canine data from Damian Montes, director CPB canine program, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Management Efficiency of the House Committee on Homeland Security, 115th Cong., 1st sess., May 18, 2017, http://docs.house.gov/meetings/HM/HM09/20170518/105943/HHRG-115-HM09-Wstate-MontesD-20170518.pdf. 2007 canine data from Office of Inspector General, “A Review of U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s Procurement of Untrained Canines,” U.S. Department of Homeland Security, OIG-08-46, April 2008, https://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/OIG_08-46_Apr08.pdf.

35 Government Accountability Office, “DHS Surveillance Technology Unmanned Aerial Systems and Other Assets,” GAO-16-671T, May 24, 2016, https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-16-671T. For a description of the technology employed, see Todd Owen et al., “Deter, Detect, and Interdict: Technology’s Role in Securing the Border,” Subcommittee on Border and Maritime Security of the House Committee on Homeland Security, 115th Cong., 1st sess., July 25, 2017, https://www.dhs.gov/news/2017/07/25/written-testimony-cbp-house-homeland-security-subcommittee-border-and-maritime.

36 Office of Inspector General, “DHS Drug Interdiction Efforts Need Improvement.”

37 Julia Edwards Ainsley, “Exclusive: Trump Border ‘Wall’ to Cost $21.6 Billion, Take 3.5 Years to Build: Internal Report,” Reuters, February 9, 2017.

38 Office of the President of the United States, “2019 Budget Fact Sheet: Stronger Border Security,” https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/FY19-Budget-Fact-Sheet_Border-Security.pdf.

39 Dan Mangan, “President Trump Vows to ‘Liberate’ United States from Opioid Epidemic: ‘Failure Is Not an Option,’” CNBC, March 19, 2018.

40 Government Accountability Office, “Issues Related to Agent Deployment Strategy and Immigration Checkpoints,” GAO-18-50, November 2017, p. 72, https://www.gao.gov/assets/690/688201.pdf.

41 The standard deviation for the prelegalization period was 9.3 pounds per agent.

42 The old Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics failed to break down the figures between Border Patrol and immigration inspectors at ports of entry, but because marijuana is smuggled overwhelmingly between ports of entry, we can infer that the overall pattern was the same in the 1990s. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Yearbook_Immigration_Statistics_2003.pdf.

43 On the flip side, a decline in agent effectiveness during the ramp-up in agents from 2004 to 2009, to the extent that there was such a decline, would have disguised an increase in smuggling during that time.

44 Douglas S. Massey and Karen A. Pren, “Unintended Consequences of U.S. Immigration Policy: Explaining the Post-1965 Surge from Latin America,” Population and Development Review 38, no.1 (2012): 1-29.

45 DHS used survey data on the share of apprehended border crossers who return to their home country without making a new entry attempt to focus on the population that would attempt to enter again. It then subtracted the number who were apprehended while making their repeat entry from the estimate of those who would make a repeat attempt. The success rate thus determined for formerly apprehended immigrants enabled DHS to estimate the number of successful entries for all border crossers.

46 DEA, “2017 National Drug Threat Assessment.”

47 Carla Argueta, “Border Security: Immigration Enforcement between Ports of Entry,” Congressional Research Service, April 19, 2016, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R42138.pdf.

48 Office of Inspector General, “Independent Review of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s Reporting of FY 2007 Drug Control Performance Summary,” U.S. Department of Homeland Security, April 2008, https://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/OIG_08-40_Apr08.pdf; Office of Inspector General, “Independent Review of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s Reporting of FY 2010 Drug Control Performance Summary Report,” U.S. Department of Homeland Security, January 2011, https://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/OIG_11-36_Jan11.pdf; U.S. Border Patrol, “Stats and Summaries-Sector Profile,” https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/media-resources/stats?title=sector+profile; Customs and Border Protection, “CBP Enforcement Statistics FY2018,”https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/cbp-enforcement-statistics; and Customs and Border Protection, “Border Patrol Agent Nationwide Staffing by Fiscal Year,” 2017.

49 Customs and Border Protection, “CBP Enforcement Statistics FY2018.”

50 Customs and Border Protection, “CBP Enforcement Statistics FY2018.”

51 2012 figure from Customs and Border Protection, “Air and Marine: A Rich and Varied History of Service,” March 14, 2014, https://www.cbp.gov/border-security/air-sea/air-and-marine-rich-and-varied-history-service. 2013 figure estimated based on Randolph Alles, “What Does a Secure Maritime Border Look Like?” House Committee on Homeland Security, November 19, 2013, https://www.dhs.gov/news/2013/11/19/written-testimony-cbp-house-homeland-security-subcommittee-border-and-maritime. 2014 figure from Randolph Alles, “Securing the Maritime Border: The Future of CBP Air and Marine,” House Committee on Homeland Security, July 14, 2015, https://www.dhs.gov/news/2015/07/14/written-testimony-cbp-house-homeland-security-subcommittee-border-and-maritime. 2015 figure from Air and Marine Operations, “Annual Review 2015,” Customs and Border Protection, https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/assets/documents/2016-Dec/Annual_Review_FINAL_2015.pdf. 2016 figure from Customs and Border Protection, “CBP’s Air and Marine Operations, Interagency Partners Thwart Attempts to Smuggle 4,659 Pounds of Cocaine,” July 6, 2017, https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/local-media-release/cbp-s-air-and-marine-operations-interagency-partners-thwart-attempts. 2017 figure from Customs and Border Protection, “Air and Marine Operations: Fact Sheet,” https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/assets/documents/2017-Dec/FS_2018_AMO_Fact%20Sheet.pdf.

52 U.S. Department of State, “Narcotics Control Reports,” https://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/nrcrpt/index.htm. 2017 figure from U.S. Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control (March 2018), https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/278759.pdf. 2016 figure from U.S. Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control (March 2017), https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/268025.pdf. 2015 figure from U.S. Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control (March 2016), https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/268025.pdf. 2014 figure from U.S. Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control (March 2015), https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253655.pdf. 2013 figure from U.S. Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control (March 2014), https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/222881.pdf. 2012 figure from U.S. Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control (March 2013), https://2009-2017.state.gov/documents/organization/204265.pdf.

53 This figure counts only states where marijuana legalization included non-low-THC, high-CBD strains and smokable varieties. User statistics come from NORML, “Medical Marijuana,” http://norml.org/legal/medical-marijuana-2. See also National Conference of State Legislatures, “State Medical Marijuana Laws,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuanalaws.aspx.

54 Based on a constant valuation of $56.1 billion for the overall marijuana market, as given by The Arcview Group, “New Report: Marijuana Stores as Profitable as Starbucks,” November 16, 2017. 2013-2014 figures from The Arcview Group, “New Report: Legal Marijuana Is the Fastest Growing Industry in the U.S.-74% Growth in 2014,” January 25, 2015. 2015 figure from Arcview Market Research, “The State of Legal Marijuana Markets, 4th Edition,” https://www.amazon.com/State-Legal-Marijuana-Markets-4th/dp/0991366522. 2016 figure from The Arcview Group, “New Report: Marijuana Stores as Profitable as Starbucks,” November 16, 2017. 2017 figure from Jeremy Berke, “The Legal Marijuana Market Is Exploding-It’ll Hit Almost $10 Billion in Sales This Year,” Business Insider, December 8, 2017.

55 Author’s calculation based on aggregating valuations from CBP press releases. See Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2017, https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/local-media-release.

56 See appendix for values. Author’s calculation based on aggregating valuations from CBP press releases. See Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2012-2017.

57 Note that since 2013, the number of officers at ports of entry (22,500) has averaged roughly about the same level as the number of Border Patrol agents (20,200).

58 Customs and Border Protection, “CBP Enforcement Statistics FY2018.”

59 Customs and Border Protection, “Heroin Found in Seat Cushion by CBP at JFK,” April 3, 2015, https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/local-media-release/heroin-found-seat-cushion-cbp-jfk.

60 The trends in CBP valuations appear to correlate with the DEA’s estimates of the value of each drug’s price per pure gram. See DEA, “2017 National Drug Threat Assessment,” https://www.dea.gov/sites/default/files/2018-07/DIR-040-17_2017-NDTA.pdf.

61 Customs and Border Protection, “Heroin Found in Seat Cushion By CBP at JFK.”

62 Wainwright, Narconomics, pp. 4-5.

63 In 2017, CBP valued the average pound of marijuana at $466; of meth at $8,999 per pound; of cocaine at $13,177 per pound; of heroin at $20,868 per pound; and of fentanyl at $28,835 per pound. (See appendix for full numbers for 2013-2017; see also the note on fentanyl values at the end of the appendix.) Author’s calculation based on aggregating valuations from CBP press releases. See Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2013-2017.

64 Customs and Border Protection, “U.S. Border Patrol Nationwide Checkpoint Drug Seizures in Pounds,” U.S. Department of Homeland Security, September 10, 2018, https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/cbp-enforcement-statistics/usbp-drug-seizures-sector.

65 The number of Border Patrol agents was taken to be 9.4 percent of the total, on the basis of the share of agent hours devoted to checkpoints from FY 2013 to FY 2016. See Government Accountability Office, “Issues Related to Agent Deployment Strategy and Immigration Checkpoints,” GAO-18-50, November 2017, p. 29.

66 The disparity may be even larger than these numbers suggest, since nearly 40 percent of Border Patrol drug seizures occur more than 20 miles from the border-at least, they did in FY 2016. See Government Accountability Office, “Issues Related to Agent Deployment Strategy and Immigration Checkpoints,” GAO-18-50, November 2017, p. 72.

67 The agencies also engage in other activities, including drug and customs enforcement. See Doris Meissner et al., “Immigration Enforcement in the United States: The Rise of a Formidable Machinery,” Migration Policy Institute, January 2013, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/immigration-enforcement-united-states-rise-formidable-machinery.

68 Border Patrol, “Nationwide Illegal Alien Apprehensions, Fiscal Years 1925-2017,” https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/assets/documents/2017-Dec/BP%20Total%20Apps%20FY1925-FY2017.pdf; Marc R. Rosenblum and Kristen McCabe, “Deportation and Discretion: Reviewing the Record and Options for Change,” Migration Policy Institute, October 2014, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/deportation-and-discretion-reviewing-record-and-options-change; and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, “Fiscal Year 2017 ICE Enforcement and Removal Operations Report,” https://www.ice.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Report/2017/iceEndOfYearFY2017.pdf.

69 Alex Nowrasteh, “Guest Worker Visas Can Halt Illegal Immigration,” Cato at Liberty(blog), May 5, 2014, https://www.cato.org/blog/guest-worker-visas-can-halt-illegal-immigration.

70 Donald Coppock, “History-Border Patrol,” Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1986, https://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/wp-content/uploads/borderpatrolstaffing25_85.pdf; TRACImmigration, “Border Patrol Agents: Southern vs. Northern Border,” Syracuse University, http://trac.syr.edu/immigration/reports/143/include/rep143table2.html; Customs and Border Protection, “Border Patrol Agent Nationwide Staffing by Fiscal Year,” 2017; Border Patrol, “Nationwide Illegal Alien Apprehensions Fiscal Years 1925-2017”; U.S. Department of Homeland Security, “Yearbook of Immigration Statistics”; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, “General Collection-Annual Reports,” August 9, 2017.

71 For 2014 and 2015, CBP reported an average of 190,000 people per year made it across the border. See Tribune News Services, “Barely Half of Illegal Border Crossers Caught, According to Homeland Security Report,” Chicago Tribune, October 7, 2016.

72 David Bier, “Three Trends to Put Trump’s Anti-Immigration Executive Orders in Context,” Cato at Liberty (blog), January 27, 2017, https://www.cato.org/blog/three-trends-put-trumps-anti-immigration-executive-orders-context.

73 Human Rights Watch, “Border Enforcement Policies Ensnare Parents of U.S. Citizen Children,” January 8, 2015.

74 Michael Clemens, “Violence, Development and Migration Waves: Evidence from Central American Child Migrant Apprehensions,” IZA Discussion Paper No. 10928, August 31, 2017, https://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/violence-development-and-migration-waves-evidence-central-american-child-migrant.pdf.

75 Jeffrey Passel and D’Vera Cohn, “Overall Number of U.S. Unauthorized Immigrants Holds Steady Since 2009,” Pew Research Center, September 20, 2016.

76 “Allocation of Immigrant Visas,” 8 U.S.C. § 1153(b)(3)(A)(iii); and “Inadmissible Aliens,” 8 U.S.C. § 1182(a)(6).

77 As quoted in David J. Bier, “Does America Ban Immigration?,” Foundation for Economic Education, July 31, 2015, https://fee.org/articles/does-america-ban-immigration/.

78 Bureau of Immigration, “Annual Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration to the Secretary of Labor Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2017,” U.S. Department of Labor, available at U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, “General Collection-Annual Reports,” https://www.uscis.gov/history-and-genealogy/historical-library/our-collection/general-collection

79 Author’s calculation based on aggregating valuations from CBP press releases. See Customs and Border Protection, “Local Media Releases,” 2012-2017.

80 Customs and Border Protection, “Heroin Found in Seat Cushion by CBP at JFK,” April 3, 2015; and Customs and Border Protection, “CBP in San Diego and Imperial Valley Seizes $8.3 Million in Narcotics,” November 15, 2017.

81 Azam Ahmed, “Drug That Killed Prince Is Making Mexican Cartels Richer, U.S. Says,” New York Times, June 9, 2016..

The Lost Secret of Enhanced Link Attribution

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Characteristics of Enhanced Link Attribution

Your view names ought to be understandable to somebody who isn’t you, and could have very little context. If there’s more than 1 domain then each has to be comma-separated in the list. Music licensing can be a little tricky, but Epidemic Sound bundles each of the legal rights you will need into on simple license that it is possible to use across all platforms. The reason why cyber attribution is difficult stems at least in part from too little end-to-end accountability in the present online infrastructure. Plagiarism is simply a form of conning.

With the right attribution, users may download and use his music on many different project completely free. You’ll also have access to real-time statistics for your website, and the ability to prepare email notifications. Also provides you a view into all the traffic being driven to your website via your tracking link, so you may further understand how much of your traffic is really converting. You’re paid depending on the visitors to your articles and through related ads.

It’s possible for you to see if key parts of information both with regard to text and visuals are in the region that’s visible to just about all users. It will be perfect if you pay attention to that affirmed instance of plagiarism. You are now in a position to see site search reports. Many studies have proven that according to individuals who attend meetings, most meetings are deemed to be a waste of time.

You’re able to locate more info on hypnotherapy to increase memory and recall in the Hypnosis Article Repository located on my site. There are many ways which help boost a site’s traffic. You may easily view your website’s traffic details without having to open your Google Analytics directly. Determine every time a page element results in distinct pages like a search button resulting in unique pieces of a website.

By utilizing a WordPress plugin you receive all of the information regarding your site traffic without the further distraction of further website visits. You may stay alert and understand new details. Any personal details you provide to Gag’s Camper Way ought to be offered and supplied on a totally voluntary basis.

Enhanced Link Attribution – What Is It?

In the above mentioned websites, you will observe that several of the tracks are safeguarded under various Creative Commons licenses. To put it differently, royalty free music makes it possible for the buyer to pay the audio license only once and use the music for so long as he or she would like. You would like to embed a YouTube video to your site. You may be surprised to learn that numerous YouTubers create video with precisely the same phone they use to create calls and Instagram posts. With MonsterInsights Universal Tracking you get the entire picture on your website. When there’s an image or text that folks think is a hyperlink or wish to be a link, they’ll click it. Utilizing a hi-res thumbnail for a YouTube video is essential if you wish to project a professional image for the site of your small business.

The Hidden Treasure of Search Engine Tactics

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If you don’t know precisely what the search engines want, you might wind up with an amazing article that nobody could ever find. One other great advantage of organic Search Engine is that isn’t hampered by ad enterprise. With assistance from the hottest social advertising and marketing research, search engine and algorithm analysis concepts, we’ve produced some of the most truly effective web service on earth thus far. Specifically, the search engine is provided different info to the sighted user. None of the main search engines operate the same.

Search Engine Tactics: the Ultimate Convenience!

Search Engine Optimization (search engine optimization) for your Chiropractic website is a significant influential component in finding your clinic new customers. So once you consider why effective search engine optimization is significant to the online home based business opportunity you’re offering to the general public, just consider the internet as a big highway with travelers speeding by. If you’re relying solely on search engine optimization for a substitute for marketing, you aren’t doing all you can to entice new organization.

You just need to quit thinking of SEO as a simple fix for attracting inquiries and engaging your intended audience. Mobile-friendly SEO With increasing quantity of mobile user, it’s important that you consider mobile SEO. Good SEO is a continuous approach. Search engine optimization is an affordable supply of highly targeted, engaged potential customers for your site. Unlike paid ad outcome, SEO is intended to encourage and manage the organic digital presence of a site. Organic SEO is among the most popular and dependable procedures that’s utilized to allow any site to rank in the Search Engine.

A Startling Fact about Search Engine Tactics Uncovered

Inbound marketing is the remedy to your issue. It’s the very simple marketing that is definitely the most powerful,” joel hill points out. If you’re into internet marketing, conversions will be absolutely the most important element of the entire search engine optimization process as you want buyers, not just visitors coming to your website.

New Step by Step Roadmap for Search Engine Tactics

So as to create a business from your site, you’ve got to take care of it like a small business. Internet business is predicted to grow to $800 billion over the subsequent three decades. Given that each company will experience some shrinkage in their customer list, it is essential for a company to continue to come up with new clients. If you’re just launching your web business, pay-per-click advertising should be a crucial element in your plan.

However fancy your site looks or how useful it appears to be, if you would prefer the search engines to recognize or understand what its about, you must incorporate the best keywords. If you’re able to do so, then those who see your site is going to be concentrated on the problem that you have said that it is possible to solve. Online Security If you operate an Ecommerce website, it’s necessary for you to make sure you’re using good security measures to safeguard sensitive customer information that’s generated while making online transaction.

There are a number of ways to construct your sites traffic, but when first starting, it is quite tricky. No matter how great it is, without links you’ll never be able to rank well. So many individuals build websites that are shrines to themselves.

Text Editor Tools at a Glance

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Highlight the variety of text you want to mark up. Click the document in which you wish to add text and start typing. Or perhaps you will need some fill-in-the-blank text to make anticipation, or to emphasize your primary point.

Please make the text bigger, therefore it is simpler to read. It fade will use your presentation’s current transition effect. Click the text that you would like to rotate. Click the “Edit Text” button and pick the text you want to delete. The very first part is it allows you to make text. In some instances, the hidden text are found by opening the image in Notepad, but you may also use an extraction program to attempt to locate the text file directly.

It is possible to add text too. For example if you chance to delete a text and you would like it back, just click on edit and select undo. Regardless of the kind of book you’re writing, you’re likely going to will need to look for specific text one day.

Most of all, you just have to like the tool, because you will be spending countless hours with it. The very best tool for you depends somewhat on the main reason you decided to construct an internet page. There also are a number of other tools here.

The TinyMCE editor may be used as a word counter too. Quite simply, although you initially get an easy, usable editor, seasoned programmers ought to be able to hack it to their liking. An expert web content editor stipulates lots of distinct benefits for internet businesses.

The Objectives Editor lets you make scenario objectives just enjoy the normal campaign. Rich-text editors are employed in a lot of ways like in enhancing your comment input form or as an element of an internet application that enables entry of user-generated and formatted content. It’s very convenient to utilize for a person who is acquainted with the DOS-based text editor. A superb text editor makes it possible for users to edit text and apply various styles. Pros Cons If you’re looking for a free, open source text editor, Atom is an exceptional alternative.

The iFRAME tool is utilized to display a web page in a web page. The Copy tool makes it possible for you to copy text from your document and put it on your clipboard to utilize in another document. The Check Spelling tool offers additional alternatives other than simply checking spelling.

A text editor is easily the most basic tool it is possible to utilize to create an internet page. The ideal text editors will also offer you recordable macros to help you code better, in addition to flexible customization choices and plugins. You can decide to use a simple text editor of the type which comes pre-installed on most computers and that doesn’t use any formatting, like the notepad program, but it’s far better to get yourself a proper `code editor’.

The Key to Successful Text Editor Tools

The Emacs text editor is just one of the most frequently used among system administrators. A file made by a text editor, whether or not it was the exact same text editor or not, will just display the text contents of the document. Several text editors can be found in the CSC computing atmosphere. Picking the ideal text editor for your work can be a difficult endeavor.

The Definitive Solution for Cloud Accounting Software

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Cloud Accounting Software: the Ultimate Convenience!

If you would like to take the very first step to finding out more about how cloud accounting can assist you, you can register for a completely free consultation right here. To put it simply, cloud accounting enables you to deal with your accounts in a better, more organized and economical way. Well cloud accounting is actually a mash up of two ideas and has been gaining quite a good deal of traction and interest in the past several years. To better explain how it is different from the way your clients are doing accounting now, you may want to create a diagram or find a piece of cloud marketing collateral. It is a new feature of accounting software from which you can run your business from corners of the globe. It is the same as traditional accounting except the data is stored on a secured remote server and can be accessed through the internet at any time, and it comes with features to make accounting and other related tasks easier for you.

The Meaning of Cloud Accounting Software

Accounting now isn’t restricted to small small business bookkeeping but is also beneficial for preparing budgets. It has been a very tiresome job that should be done by the expert only. Cloud accounting helps prevent such error by enabling you to manage your books via remote access using a number of devices. The first point to consider about cloud accounting is the flexibility it offers. The Peachtree cloud accounting is secure and dependable for practically any business domain.

Here’s What I Know About Cloud Accounting Software

The computer software can be integrated with numerous computing and mobile ecosystem. Accounting software has many characteristics that can help manage accounts accurately. The available accounting software along with invoicing packages are made particularly for business owners, although the accountants also utilize it.

Accounting software can generally be the cornerstone for a far larger, integrated system that assists you to run your specific business efficiently and proactively. Cloud accounting software is likewise a great tool for managing your sales tax procedure. Peachtree cloud accounting software makes it possible for users to operate the business trade and finance from any place in the world.

As a startup or a little business utilizing on-premise or manual accounting, a cloud accounting software is easily the most practical and economical method of automating your accounting. So it is basically a way to run your small business accounts entirely online without the need for offline storage or applications. It saves a lot of your time and money of your company.

Cloud accounting software is able to help you keep an eye on your expenses through one platform. It can help you record your expenses as well as the money that comes in. Before you can begin taking a look at cloud accounting software, you will need to understand what the cloud is and why it’s so helpful to your enterprise.

The program is cloud-based and doesn’t charge a penny for implementation, you must pay per-user. These days, the computer software includes packages that software vendors decide. Cloud-based accounting software such as Xero, enables you to handle your accounts in a better means from anywhere so long as you’ve got access to the web.

The Argument About Top Crm Options

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The Secret to Top Crm Options

The remedy is a superb choice to derive the most quantity of insight from your company sales and workflow data. 1 popular solution is HackerRank. Ultimately, the perfect alternative is to discover cloud-based tailored CRM without a middleman. In truth, it may be your very best option when easing new team members into the procedure.

If your CRM can’t satisfy your task management targets, move forward. So, in the event that you also desire to implement CRM for your organization, we are glad to give you a hand. You’ve got to decide on the CRM that is the proper size for your company. You want to make certain that the CRM you are just about to pick, enables you to integrate with the apps you’re daily using like Google Drive, Slack or MailChimp. Powerful and simple to use, HubSpot CRM delivers numerous features free of charge. The HubSpot CRM has standard features which you would anticipate from competitors who require you to cover their software. Price HubSpot CRM is a cloud-based software and regarded as among the major CRM applications in the marketplace.

Our CRM will change your company! So, when deciding on a solution, the CRM you select have to be able to interface with different applications that you already have and use in your company. Implementing CRM is an important change for virtually any organization. Therefore, if you’re looking for small, easy and simple CRM, the perfect decision isn’t straightforward.

All you have to do is be careful when selecting a CRM for maximum returns on your investment. Selecting a CRM appears to be a daunting process with ample alternatives available on the market. By this time, it is clear that CRM brings in a large number of advantages. A great CRM won’t impede your continuing work instead integrate with your present application that will help you perform far better. Along with having the ability to collect and analyze large amounts of information, a very good CRM will also be in a position to do so in real moment.

The majority of the CRM supplies a completely free trial of the item, so you can explore the CRM and clear your doubts. Likewise, you desire a CRM that will grow with your company and will have the ability to adapt to your changing processes without needing to be replaced. Salesforce CRM is among the most popular CRM systems on the industry nowadays. As CRM has existed for a very long time, deciding on the suitable CRM program system, implementing it in your organisation and its proper usage can benefit the company in a variety of ways. Actually, enterprise CRM is really very different from other CRM solutions in lots of ways. In such scenario, customized CRM becomes the alternate to vertical market program. If you too want to get the ideal CRM for your organization, look no more.

What You Should Do to Find Out About Top Crm Options Before You’re Left Behind

CRM is intended to help you give every customer the undivided attention they deserve. Before you start, it’s important to see which sales CRM is suitable for your team. It’s tough to choose the ideal CRM in 2017 entirely objectively. When you’ve found the very best CRM in 2017 for your organization, be certain to explore extra technology resources for effective lead conversion.